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  • A review of growth mind-set research has found the correlation between growth mind-set and academic achievement was very weak, and may be restricted to some groups of students.

In the education world, fixed mind-set is usually contrasted with growth mind-set. In this context, fixed mind-set refers to students holding the idea that their cognitive abilities, including their intelligence, are set at birth, and they just have to accept their limitations.

  • A large study has found that smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity are each linked to more brain atrophy, and damage to white matter.
  • The more of these you have, the greater the shrinkage and damage.

Brain scans of 9,772 people aged 44 to 79, who were enrolled in the UK Biobank study, have revealed that smoking, high blood pressure, high pulse pressure, diabetes, and high BMI — but not high cholesterol — were all linked to greater brain shrinkage, less

  • A very large study shows that greater exposure to air pollution was linked to poorer cognitive performance in older adults, especially men and the less educated.

A large Chinese study involving 20,000 people has found that the longer people were exposed to air pollution, the worse their cognitive performance in verbal and math tests. The effect of air pollution on verbal tests became more pronounced with age, especially for men and the less educated.

  • A review of 34 studies confirms depression is linked to faster cognitive decline in older adults.

A review of 34 longitudinal studies, involving 71,244 older adults, has concluded that depression is associated with greater cognitive decline.

  • A small study of young adults found that 10 minutes of light exercise improved memory for details and increased relevant brain activity.
  • Another study found that 15 minutes of more intense exercise after learning a new motor skill resulted in better skill performance a day later.

Ten minutes of light exercise boosts memory

  • New research shows memory consolidation requires simultaneous replay with hippocampal 'ripples'. These may depend on deeper processing.

A study involving epilepsy patients who had electrodes implanted into their brain has revealed that memory

  • The connection between sleep apnea and depression may lie in a problem with autobiographical memory.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs when a person's breathing is interrupted during sleep.

People with OSA are known to suffer memory problems and also have higher rates of depression.

  • A new study adds to recent research challenging the idea that bilingualism benefits children's executive function.

The idea that bilingual children have superior executive function compared to monolingual children has been challenged in recent research.

  • A carefully managed aerobic exercise program might help those suffering sports-related concussions recover faster.

A randomized clinical trial involving 103 teenage athletes who sustained concussions while playing sports found that those who underwent a supervised, aerobic exercise program took significantly less time to recover compared to those who instead engaged in mild stretching.

  • A large, long-running study has found an association between consumption of fruit & vegetables and subjectively assessed memory skills in older men.

A study following nearly 28,000 older men for 20 years has found that regular consumption of leafy greens, dark orange and red vegetables and berry fruits, and orange juice, was associated with a lower risk of memory loss.

  • Getting a good night’s sleep is given greater importance with the discovery that sleep deprivation appears to rapidly increase the spread of tau tangles.

Poor sleep has been associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease, and this has been thought to be in part because the protein amyloid beta increases with sleep deprivation. A new study explains more.

  • A short exercise program improved cognition and brain blood flow in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

A small study has found that a 12-week exercise program significantly improved cognition in both older adults with

  • Preliminary research suggests that microbes in the gut directly affects dementia risk.

A Japanese study looking at 128 patients' fecal samples, found that fecal concentrations of ammonia, indole, skatole and phenol were higher in dementia patients compared to those without dementia, while levels of beneficial Bacteroides were lower in dementia patients.

  • A large clinical trial comparing the effects on cardiovascular disease of standard blood pressure control vs stricter control, has found that stricter control significantly reduced the risk of mild cognitive impairment.

A clinical trial involving 9361 older adults (50+) with hypertension but without diabetes or history of stroke has found that intensive control of blood pressure significantly reduced the risk of developing mild cognitive impairment.

  • A large Danish study has found that the greater number of symptoms of distress in late midlife, the more likely the individual was to develop dementia later in life.

Survey data from 6,807 Danish older adults (average age 60) in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, has found that being distressed in late midlife is associated with a higher risk of dementia in later life.

  • Older people who spend less time in slow-wave sleep (deep sleep) have higher levels of the Alzheimer’s brain protein tau.

Poor sleep has been associated with Alzheimer's disease risk, but a new study suggests a specific aspect of sleep is important.

  • A very large genetic study provides evidence that cardiovascular disease risk and Alzheimer's risk are related because of one shared element: genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism.

The APOE gene, the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, is known to be involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism.

  • Two large studies show an association between the Alzheimer's protein tau and the Alzheimer's gene APOE4, but the association varies across race and gender.

Data from 1,215 older adults, of whom 173 (14%) were African-American, has found that, although brain scans showed no significant differences between black and white participants,

  • More evidence comes from several studies of more subtle brain damage that isn't captured in conventional tests of concussions.
  • A new brainwave monitor finds brain impairments in ice hockey players that had been cleared to return to play after concussions, as well as signs of impairment from players experiencing sub-concussive impacts
  • A new way of analyzing brain images has found clear brain changes six months after female rugby players suffered concussions
  • Young adults suffering multiple concussions showed brainwave changes accompanied by poorer cognitive control more than a month after the last concussion
  • Detailed scans found hockey players cleared to return to play showed loosened myelin (the insulating substance around brain wiring)
  • However one study of young football players showed no association between sub-concussive impacts and neurocognitive performance (but were their tests sensitive enough?)

New method finds undetected brain impairments in ice hockey players with and without diagnosed concussions

  • The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has updated its concussion recommendations.

The American Academy of Pediatric now supports children and teens engaging in light physical activity and returning to school as they recover. It also now advises against complete removal of electronic devices, such as television, computers and smartphones, following a concussion.

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