A Canadian study involving French-speaking university students has found that repeating aloud, especially to another person, improves memory for words.
In the first experiment, 20 students read a series of words while wearing headphones that emitted white noise, in order to mask their own voices and eliminate auditory feedback. Four actions were compared:
- repeating silently in their head
- repeating silently while moving their lips
- repeating aloud while looking at the screen
- repeating aloud while looking at someone.
They were tested on their memory of the words after a distraction task. The memory test only required them to recognize whether or not the words had occurred previously.
There was a significant effect on memory. The order of the conditions matches the differences in memory, with memory worst in the first condition, and best in the last.
In the second experiment, 19 students went through the same process, except that the stimuli were pseudo-words. In this case, there was no memory difference between the conditions.
The effect is thought to be due to the benefits of motor sensory feedback, but the memory benefit of directing your words at a person rather than a screen suggests that such feedback goes beyond the obvious. Visual attention appears to be an important memory enhancer (no great surprise when we put it that way!).
Most of us have long ago learned that explaining something to someone really helps our own understanding (or demonstrates that we don’t in fact understand it!). This finding supports another, related, experience that most of us have had: the simple act of telling someone something helps our memory.
(2015). The ecology of self-monitoring effects on memory of verbal productions: Does speaking to someone make a difference?.
Consciousness and Cognition. 36, 139 - 146.