homocysteine

More evidence of the benefits of B vitamins in fighting cognitive decline

September, 2011
  • High daily doses of B-vitamins significantly slowed cognitive decline and brain atrophy in those with MCI, especially if they had high levels of homocysteine.

In a small study, 266 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (aged 70+) received a daily dose of 0.8 mg folic acid, 0.5 mg vitamin B12 and 20 mg vitamin B6 or a placebo for two years. Those treated with B vitamins had significantly lower levels of homocysteine at the end of the trial (high homocysteine is a known risk factor for age-related cognitive decline and dementia). Moreover, this was associated with a significantly slower rate of brain shrinkage.

However, while there were significant effects on homocysteine level, brain atrophy, and executive function, it wasn’t until results were separated on the basis of baseline homocysteine levels that we get really dramatic results.

It was the group with high homocysteine levels at the start of the study who really benefited from the high doses of B vitamins. For them, brain atrophy was cut by half, and there were clear benefits in episodic memory, semantic memory, and global cognitive function, not just executive function. Among those with high baseline homocysteine who received the placebo, significant cognitive decline occurred.

The level of B vitamins in the supplements was considerably greater than the recommended standard. However, caution must be taken in dosing yourself with supplements, because folic acid can have negative effects. Better to try and get your diet right first.

A longer and larger follow-up study is now planned, and hopefully that will tell us if such treatment can keep MCI developing into Alzheimer’s.

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Vitamin B12 may reduce risk of Alzheimer's disease

November, 2010

A long-running study adds to the evidence that high levels of homocysteine increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s, and higher levels of vitamin B12 help to bring down these levels and reduce risk.

A seven-year study involving 271 Finns aged 65-79 has revealed that increases in the level of homocysteine in the blood were associated with increasing risk of developing Alzheimer’s (each micromolar increase in the concentration of homocysteine increased the risk of Alzheimer's by 16%), while increases in the level of vitamin B12 decreased the risk (each picomolar increase in concentration of B12 reduced risk by 2%). A larger study is needed to confirm this. 17 people (6%) developed Alzheimer’s over the course of the study.

Still, these results are consistent with a number of other studies showing greater risk with higher homocysteine and lower B12. High levels of vitamin B12 are known to lower homocysteine. However, studies directly assessing the effects of B12 supplements have had mixed results. Low levels of B12 are common in the elderly.

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New gene associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's

April, 2010

Another gene has been identified that appears to increase risk of Alzheimer’s. The gene is involved in influencing the body's levels of homocysteine (high levels are known to be a strong risk factor), and have also been implicated in coronary artery disease.

Another gene has been identified that appears to increase risk of Alzheimer’s. The gene, MTHFD1L, is located on chromosome six. Comparison of the genomes of 2,269 people with late-onset Alzheimer's disease and 3,107 people without the disease found those with a particular variation in this gene were almost twice as likely to develop Alzheimer's disease as those people without the variation. The gene is involved in influencing the body's levels of homocysteine (high levels are known to be a strong risk factor), and have also been implicated in coronary artery disease.

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The results were presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 62nd Annual Meeting in Toronto, April 10–17, 2010.

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