seniors

Predicting if MCI will progress to Alzheimer's

A French study has predicted with 90% accuracy which patients with mild cognitive impairment would receive a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease within the following two years. The best neurological predictors were cortical thickness in two brain regions (the right

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Over 90% of dementia cases in China are undetected

A survey of 7,072 older adults in six provinces across China, with one rural and one urban community in each province, has identified 359 older adults with dementia and 328 with depression. There were only 26 participants who had doctor-diagnosed dementia reported and 26 who had doctor-diagnosed depression. Overall, 93% of dementia cases and 93% of depression were not detected.

Undetected dementia was strongly associated with low socioeconomic status such as a low educational and occupational class, and living in a rural area.

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Falling in British dementia rate

A survey of 7796 older adults (65+) living in three geographic areas in England has allowed us to compare dementia rates over time, with an identical survey having been taken between 1989 and 1994. The overall prevalence of dementia fell significantly, from 8.3% to 6.5%.

The finding provides further evidence that a cohort effect exists in dementia prevalence.

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2813%2961570-6/fulltext

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Less cognitive decline in Danish nonagenarians

A large Danish study comparing two groups of nonagenarians born 10 years apart has found that not only were people born in 1915 nearly a third (32%) more likely to reach the age of 95 than those in the 1905 cohort, but members of the group born in 1915 performed significantly better on tests of cognitive ability and activities of daily living. Additionally, significantly more members of the later cohort scored maximally on the MMSE (23% vs 13% of the earlier cohort).

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Blood test predicts Alzheimer’s risk early

A five-year study involving 525 older adults (70+) found 46 had Alzheimer’s or aMCI and a further 28 went on to develop the conditions. The blood levels of 10 specific lipids predicted with more than 90% accuracy whether an individual would go on to develop either Alzheimer’s or aMCI within 2-3 years. The researchers speculate that the lower lipid levels could be an early indication that brain cells are beginning to lose their integrity and break down.

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Plaques tell which MCI patients will progress to Alzheimer’s

A three-year study involving 152 adults aged 50 and older, of whom 52 had been recently diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and 31 were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, has found that those with mild or no cognitive impairment who initially had amyloid-beta plaques showed greater cognitive decline than those whose brain scans were negative for plaques.

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Variations in eye structure and function seen early in Alzheimer's

More evidence for early changes in the eye in Alzheimer’s disease comes from a study involving both rats and postmortem human retinas. Changes were found in the retinal pigment epithelial layer (which harbors the supportive cells located in the back of the eye) and in the thickness of the choroidal layer that has blood vessels providing nutrients to the retina.

The finding is consistent with growing evidence that glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disorder similar to Alzheimer’s.

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Blocking inflammation receptor helps Alzheimer's mice

Blocking a receptor involved in inflammation in the brains of mice with severe Alzheimer’s produced marked recovery in blood flow and vascular reactivity, a dramatic reduction in toxic amyloid-beta, and significant improvements in learning and memory.

The receptor was the bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R), and the finding confirms a role of B1R, and neuroinflammation, in the development of Alzheimer’s. It also points to a new target for therapy.

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Brain network decay detected in early Alzheimer's

A multi-year study involving 207 healthy older adults, in which their spinal fluids were repeatedly sampled and their brains repeatedly scanned, has found that disruptions in the default mode network emerges about the same time as chemical markers of Alzheimer’s appear in the spinal fluid (decreased amyloid-beta and increased tau protein). The finding suggests not only that amyloid-beta and tau pathology affect default mode network integrity early on, but that scans of brain networks may be an equally effective and less invasive way to detect early disease.

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