inflammation

Some chronic viral infections could contribute to age-related cognitive decline

  • A longitudinal study confirms findings from cross-sectional studies that certain common viral infections are factors in age-related cognitive decline.

Growing research has implicated infections as a factor in age-related cognitive decline, but these have been cross-sectional (comparing different individuals, who will have a number of other, possibly confounding, attributes). Now a large longitudinal study provides more evidence that certain chronic viral infections could contribute to subtle cognitive deterioration in apparently healthy older adults.

The study involved 1,022 older adults (65+), who had annual evaluations for five years. It revealed an association between cognitive decline and exposure to several viruses: cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex (HSV 2), and the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii.

More specifically, the IgG levels for HSV-2 were significantly associated with baseline cognitive scores, while the IgG levels for HSV-2 (genital herpes), TOX (which has been much in the news in recent years for being harbored in domestic cats, and being implicated in various neurological disorders), and CMV (a common virus which unfortunately rarely causes symptoms), but not HSV-1 (the cold sore virus), were significantly associated with greater temporal cognitive decline that varied by type of infection.

More research is obviously needed to determine more precisely what the role of different infectious agents is in cognitive decline, but the findings do point to a need for a greater emphasis on preventing and treating infections. They also add to the growing evidence that age-related cognitive decline isn't 'normal', but something that occurs when other health-related factors come into play.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-02/uops-scv020416.php

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Gentle exercise during chemotherapy has significant cognitive benefits

A six-week study involving 619 cancer patients has found that those who took part in a simple home-based exercise program significantly reduced their cognitive impairment ('chemo-brain'). The EXCAP (Exercise for Cancer Patients) was developed by the researchers some years ago, and this evaluation was a phase III randomized study for early-stage chemotherapy patients. Half the group were given standard care (no exercise during chemotherapy), while the others were given instruction to walk daily and carry out low-to-moderate resistance band training for 10 minutes, 5 days a week.

This very modest increase in exercise (the 'no-exercise' group walked on average 3,800 steps a day, while the excap group walked on average 5,000 steps) had significant effects:

  • lower levels of inflammation
  • less brain 'fogginess'
  • fewer memory problems
  • greater mobility.

Exercisers who received chemotherapy in 2-week cycles reported the greatest benefits, compared to other timing cycles.

http://www.futurity.org/exercise-chemotherapy-932492/

http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/news/story/index.cfm?id=4333

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The findings were presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting on June 1, by Karen Mustian.

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Obesity linked to inflammation & impaired brain function

A mouse study has found that obese mice had high levels of interleukin 1 in both their blood and their brains, and this was associated with:

  • high levels of inflammation,
  • low levels of a biochemical important to synapse function, and
  • impaired cognitive function.

Moreover, when fat was removed from the obese mice, interleukin levels dropped dramatically, and cognitive performance improved.

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Poor sleep in old age increases risk of cognitive impairment

May, 2012

Two recent studies add to evidence that sleeping poorly is a risk factor for several disorders in old age, including mild cognitive impairment, Parkinson’s, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Older adults who sleep poorly react to stress with increased inflammation

A study involving 83 older adults (average age 61) has found that poor sleepers reacted to a stressful situation with a significantly greater inflammatory response than good sleepers. High levels of inflammation increase the risk of several disorders, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and have been implicated in Alzheimer’s.

Each participant completed a self-report of sleep quality, perceived stress, loneliness and medication use. Around 27% were categorized as poor sleepers. Participants were given a series of tests of verbal and working memory designed to increase stress, with blood being taken before and after testing, as well as three more times over the next hour. The blood was tested for levels of a protein marker for inflammation (interleukin-6).

Poor sleepers reported more depressive symptoms, more loneliness and more perceived stress compared to good sleepers. Before cognitive testing, levels of IL-6 were the same for poor and good sleepers. However, while both groups showed increases in IL-6 after testing, poor sleepers showed a significantly larger increase — as much as four times larger and at a level found to increase risk for illness and death in older adults.

After accounting for loneliness, depression or perceived stress, this association remained. Surprisingly, there was no evidence that poor sleep led to worse cognitive performance, thus causing more stress. Poor sleepers did just as well on the tests as the good sleepers (although I note that we cannot rule out that poor sleepers were having to put in more effort to achieve the same results). Although there was a tendency for poor sleepers to be in a worse mood after testing (perhaps because they had to put in more effort? My own speculation), this mood change didn’t predict the increased inflammatory response.

The findings add to evidence that poor sleep (unfortunately common as people age) is an independent risk factor for cognitive and physical health, and suggest we should put more effort into dealing with it, rather than just accepting it as a corollary of age.

REM sleep disorder doubles risk of MCI, Parkinson's

A recent Mayo Clinic study has also found that people with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have twice the risk of developing mild cognitive impairment or Parkinson’s disease. Some 34% of those diagnosed with probable RBD developed MCI or Parkinson's disease within four years of entering the study, a rate 2.2 times greater than those with normal REM sleep.

Earlier research has found that 45% of those with RBD developed MCI or Parkinson's disease within five years of diagnosis, but these findings were based on clinical patients. The present study involved cognitively healthy older adults (70-89) participating in a population-based study of aging, who were diagnosed for probable RBD on the basis of the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire.

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Link between gum disease and poorer cognition in older adults

September, 2010

A strong association between gum inflammation and poorer cognitive performance in 70-year-olds has been found in a small study.

Following on from indications that gum disease might be a risk factor for dementia, analysis of data from 152 subjects in the Danish Glostrop Aging Study has revealed that periodontal inflammation at age 70 was strongly associated with lower cognitive scores (on the Digit Symbol Test). Those with periodontal inflammation were nine times more likely to test in the lower range compared to those with little or no periodontal inflammation. A larger follow-up study, among a more ethnically diverse range of subjects, is planned. I hope they also plan to extend the cognitive testing.

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The findings were presented by Dr. Angela Kamer at the 2010 annual meeting of the International Association for Dental Research July 16, in Barcelona, Spain.

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