A special supplement in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease focuses on the effects of caffeine on dementia and age-related cognitive decline. Here are the highlights:
A mouse study has found memory restoration and lower levels of amyloid-beta in Alzheimer’s mice following only 1-2 months of caffeine treatment. The researchers talk of “ a surprising ability of moderate caffeine intake to protect against or treat AD”, and define moderate intake as around 5 cups of coffee a day(!).
A review of studies into the relation between caffeine intake, diabetes, cognition and dementia, concludes that indications that coffee/caffeine consumption is associated with a decreased risk of Type 2 diabetes and possibly also with a decreased dementia risk, cannot yet be confirmed with any certainty.
A study involving 351 older adults without dementia found the association between caffeine intake and cognitive performance disappeared once socioeconomic status was taken into account.
A study involving 641 older adults found caffeine consumption was significantly associated with less cognitive decline for women only. Supporting this, white matter lesions were significantly fewer in women consuming more than 3 units of caffeine per day (after adjustment for age) than in women consuming less.
A Portuguese study involving 648 older adults found that caffeine intake was associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline in women, but not significantly in men.
A review of published studies examining the relation between caffeine intake and cognitive decline or dementia shows a trend towards a protective effect of caffeine, but because of the limited number of epidemiological studies, and the methodological differences between them, is unable to come up with a definitive conclusion.
A review of published epidemiological studies looking at the association between caffeine intake and Parkinson’s Disease confirms that higher caffeine intake is associated with a lower risk of developing Parkinson’s Disease (though this association may be stronger for men than women). Other studies provide evidence of caffeine’s potential in treatment, improving both the motor deficits and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s.
Arendash, G.W. & Cao, C. Caffeine and Coffee as Therapeutics Against Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 20 (Supp 1), 117-126.
Biessels, G.J. Caffeine, Diabetes, Cognition, and Dementia. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 20 (Supp 1), 143-150.
Kyle, J., Fox, H.C. & Whalley, L.J. Caffeine, Cognition, and Socioeconomic Status. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 20 (Supp 1), 151-159.
Ritchie, K. et al. Caffeine, Cognitive Functioning, and White Matter Lesions in the Elderly: Establishing Causality from Epidemiological Evidence. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 20 (Supp 1), 161-161
Santos, C. et al. Caffeine Intake is Associated with a Lower Risk of Cognitive Decline: A Cohort Study from Portugal. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 20 (Supp 1), 175-185.
Santos, C. et al. Caffeine Intake and Dementia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 20 (Supp 1), 187-204.
Costa, J. et al. Caffeine Exposure and the Risk of Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 20 (Supp 1), 221-238.
Prediger, R.D.S. Effects of Caffeine in Parkinson’s Disease: From Neuroprotection to the Management of Motor and Non-Motor Symptoms. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 20 (Supp 1), 205-220.