drug created from bacteria found in the soil on Easter Island. Used as an immunosuppressant, it has been found to extend the life span of aged research mice. Preliminary mouse studies indicate it may help repair Alzheimer's lesions in the brain.
- receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)
They are peptides that routinely circulate in the bloodstream, where they help attract waste products and remove them. When they attract beta amyloid, however, they can combine to form a complex capable of generating an immune response. Considerably more antibodies to RAGE are found in people with Alzheimer’s disease.
protein molecules specially designed to attract particular neurotransmitters
a protein that acts on the NMDA receptor, appearing to counteract the effects of too much amyloid-beta protein.
a natural compound occurring in abundance in grapes, berries and peanuts. It has been found to lower levels of amyloid-beta peptides in cell cultures. The highest concentration has been reported in wines prepared from Pinot Noir grapes.
an antipsychotic drug commonly used with people with dementia; there have been concerns about its safety because of an increased risk of stroke
rivastigmine tartrate is a cholinesterase inhibitor, marketed as Exelon
- RNA genes
produce RNA molecules with special properties and effects, rather than expressing a protein, which is what most genes do.
an experimental drug being tested for its effectiveness in moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's. Rolipram is a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, able to modify gene expression, making brain synapses more resistant to the insult caused by the accumulation of amyloid-beta.
Glossary of neurological terms
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