an enzyme that triggers the production of nitric oxide. Although normally turned on during infection and needed to help immune cells destroy invading pathogens, it is not normally found in the brain, where it may cause cellular damage that destroys neurons. It's found in the brain lesions of Alzheimer’s patients, where it appears to worsen the damage.
an enzyme that degrades insulin, now found to also degrade amyloid beta peptides. Lowered insulysin activity has been found to raise amyloid beta peptide levels in the brain. It is suggested that low levels of insulysin can therefore be considered a risk factor for Alzheimer's.
is a protein that is increased in the brains of Alzheimer's patients, producing excessive immune activation and inflammation. A rise in acetylcholine reduces the production of interleukin-1.
are neurons that connect with other neurons, as compared to sensory and motor neurons. Most neurons are interneurons.
Glossary of neurological terms
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