- basal ganglia
are large "knots" (ganglion means knot) of nerve cells deep in the cerebrum. They are thought to be involved in various aspects of motor behavior (Parkinson's disease, for example, is an affliction of the basal ganglia). Structures contained in the basal ganglia include the amygdala, globus pallidus, and striatum (containing the caudate nucleus and the putamen).
- bed nuclei
a clump of gray matter surrounding the stria terminalis, deep within the brain, near the thalamus. It receives information from the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and communicates with several lower brain regions that control stress responses and defensive behaviors.
is the most primitive part of the brain, which also means it controls the most basic functions (such as breathing. It may be thought of as the stem connecting the spinal cord and the cerebral hemispheres. It includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, medulla, and pons.
- Broca's region
is located in the frontal lobe, and, for most people, the left hemisphere (some left-handers have this area in the right hemisphere). Originally thought to be "the" speech center, it is now understood that a number of regions of the brain are involved in language behavior. More recently, Broca's area has been implicated in music processing, leading some researchers to suggest music may be processed as a language. Imaging studies have revealed that professional musicians trained at an early age have an increased volume of gray matter in Broca's area. Broca's area is part of a language and music processing network that includes Wernicke's area, the superior temporal sulcus, Heschl's gyrus, planum polare, planum temporale, and the anterior superior insular cortices.
Glossary of brain regions
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