Functional impairment good indicator of mild cognitive impairment
Evaluation of 816 older adults, of whom 229 had no cognitive problems, 394 had a diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 193 had a diagnosis of mild Alzheimer’s, has revealed that most of those with aMCI (72%) or AD (97%) had trouble with at least one type of function on the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire. Only 8% of controls had any difficulty. In both impaired groups, those who had the most difficulty functioning also tended to score worse on cognition tests, have smaller hippocampal volumes, and carry the APOe4 gene.
Two of the ten items in the questionnaire were specific in differentiating the control group from the impaired groups. Those items concerned "remembering appointments, family occasions, holidays, and medications” and "assembling tax records, business affairs, or other papers." Only 34% of those with aMCI and 3.6% of those with AD had no difficulty with these items.
The findings suggest that even mild disruptions in daily functioning may be an important clinical indicator of disease.
Early-onset Alzheimer’s poorly diagnosed when initial symptoms aren’t memory related
Post-mortem analysis of 40 people diagnosed with early-onset Alzheimer’s has revealed that about 38% experienced initial symptoms other than memory problems, such as behavior, vision or language problems and a decline in executive function, or the ability to carry out tasks. Of these, 53% were incorrectly diagnosed when first seen by a doctor, compared to 4% of those who had memory problems. Of those with unusual initial symptoms, 47% were still incorrectly diagnosed at the time of their death.
The mean age at onset was 54.5 years (range 46-60). The average duration of the disease was 11 years, with an average diagnostic delay of 3 years.
GPs misidentify and fail to identify early dementia and MCI
A review of 30 studies involving 15,277 people seen in primary care for cognitive disorders, has found that while GPs managed to identify eight out of ten people with moderate to severe dementia, they only identified 45% of those with early dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Moreover, they were very poor at recording such diagnoses. Thus, though they recognized 45% of the MCI cases, they only recorded 11% of these cases in their medical notes. Although they identified 73% of people with dementia, they made correct annotations in medical records in only 38% of cases.
But the problem is not simply one of failing to diagnose — they were even more likely to misidentify dementia, and this was particularly true for those with depression or hearing problems.
The findings point to the need for more widespread use of simple cognitive screening tests.
Prevalence of dementia & MCI in 'oldest old' women
Data from 1,299 women enrolled in the Women Cognitive Impairment Study of Exceptional Aging suggests that the incidence of dementia almost doubles with every 5 years of age and prevalence rises from approximately 2-3% in those 65 to 75 years to 35% in those 85+.
Among those with mild cognitive impairment, amnestic multiple domain was most common (34%), followed by non-amnestic single domain (29%). Amnestic single domain (affecting only one type of cognitive function, including memory difficulty) affected 22%.
Alzheimer's disease and mixed dementia accounted for nearly 80% of dementia cases, and vascular dementia for 12.1%.
Those with dementia tended to be older, less likely to have completed high school, more likely to have reported depression, a history of stroke, and to have the APOEe4 gene.
The women in the study had an average age of 88.2 years and 27% were older than 90. 41% had clinical cognitive impairment (17.8% with dementia and 23.2% with mild cognitive impairment).
The high prevalence of cognitive impairment in this age group points to the importance of screening for cognitive disorders, particularly among high-risk groups.
 . Functional Impairment in Elderly Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Alzheimer Disease. Arch Gen Psychiatry [Internet]. 2011 ;68(6):617 - 626. Available from: http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/68/6/617
 . Clinical features and APOE genotype of pathologically proven early-onset Alzheimer disease. Neurology [Internet]. 2011 ;76(20):1720 - 1725. Available from: http://www.neurology.org/content/76/20/1720.abstract
 . Clinical recognition of dementia and cognitive impairment in primary care: a meta‐analysis of physician accuracy. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica [Internet]. 2011 ;124(3):165 - 183. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01730.x/abstract
 . Mild Cognitive Impairment, Dementia, and Their Subtypes in Oldest Old Women. Arch Neurol [Internet]. 2011 ;68(5):631 - 636. Available from: http://archneur.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/68/5/631