TBI

What happens after traumatic brain injury occurs?

December, 2010

Findings from a rat study show how TBI can begin a process that continues to deform the brain long after the original injury.

A rat study using powerful imaging techniques has revealed how an injured brain continues to change long after the original trauma. Widespread decreases in brain functioning over a period of months were seen in specific brain regions, in particular the hippocampus, amygdala, and ipsilateral cortex, even when these were remote from the site of direct trauma and unaccompanied by signs of injury.

The findings indicate that there is a time window during which intervention could reduce these processes and protect against some of the disabling consequences of TBI.

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Brain changes found in football players thought to be concussion-free

November, 2010

Another study adds to evidence that the extent of the problems of repeated impact to the head in football have been under-estimated.

Monitoring of 11 football players at a high school in Indiana, who wore helmets equipped with sensors that recorded impart, has revealed the problem of head injuries is deeper than was thought. Brain scans and cognitive tests, in addition to the impact data, found that some players who hadn't been diagnosed with concussions nevertheless had developed changes in brain function, correlated with cognitive impairment. The findings point to the dangers of repeated impact, regardless of whether consciousness is lost.

The research is ongoing, and aims to determine how many blows it takes to cause impairment, and whether players accumulate damage over several sessions, or recover. The work to date suggests that those who developed impairment in the absence of concussion received a large number of blows primarily to the top and front of the head. This is just above the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which showed changes in activation. Visual working memory was the function principally affected.

Researchers are also working to create a helmet that reduces the cumulative effect of impacts.

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Damage to amygdala can be compensated by another region

September, 2010

A memory function thought to require a specific brain region called the amygdala has now been found to be able to be performed by another region, if the amygdala is impaired.

A number of studies in recent years have revealed the amazing ability of the human brain to compensate for damage down to its part. In the latest of these, it’s been found that loss of the amygdala doesn’t have to mean that new memories will be void of emotion. Instead, it appears, a region called the bed nuclei can step in to take its place. The bed nuclei are slower to process information than the amygdala, and in normal circumstances are inhibited by the amygdala. The study looked specifically at fear conditioning, for which the amygdala has been considered crucial.

The finding offers the hope that therapies to promote compensatory shifts in function might help those who have suffered damage to parts of their brain.

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